Find us on Google+ Gastroparesis

Copyright

“You agree that you will not modify, copy, reproduce, sell, or distribute any content in any manner or medium without permission."

Monday, February 11, 2019

Information About The Different Kinds of Feeding Tubes Part 1

There are many kinds of feeding tubes out there that can help with Gastroparesis/DTP. I have approached this article a bit different because I do not have feeding tube experience, yet. For the first time for one of my blog articles, I asked warriors with feeding tubes answer a survey of frequently asked questions I have gotten regarding feeding tubes.

I will be splitting this up into two parts because I have received so many replies with personal stories and pictures. I am really impressed with the responses to the surveys I sent out for people with feeding tubes to answer to help those whom may have just had one placed, or whom may be on the fence regarding this decision. I will be expanding on the personal stories, survey answers, and pictures in the second part of this article. Thank you to everyone who were brave enough to help me out on this subject, and for helping people out there who might need extra guidance and reassurance.

I do not have any personal experience with feeding tubes, as I have stated above, so part one of my article will mostly be research.


***WARNING***

THIS ARTICLE DOES CONTAIN PHOTOS THAT MAY INCLUDE, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, FEEDING TUBE SITES, INFECTED FEEDING TUBE SITES, AND MAY CONTAIN GRAPHIC IMAGES IN RELATION TO FEEDING TUBES. I WANT TO WARN ANYONE WHO HAS A SQUEAMISH DISPOSITION, THAT THIS ARTICLE DOES IN FACT, CONTAIN PHOTOS.




I have been fortunate enough to encounter some wonderful people who have feeding tubes. They have shared their pictures with me, which you can find on my website (and some below this article),

https://emily-scherer.squarespace.com/feedingtube/





Source: Located on Image




According to The Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation (https://www.feedingtubeawareness.org/tube-feeding-basics/tubetypes/), these are the different kinds of feeding tubes,




Source: On Website Listed Above




Nasal Tubes (NG, ND, NJ)

Nasal tubes are non-surgical and temporary tubes placed through the nose and into the stomach or intestine. The choice between nasogastric (NG), nasoduodenal (ND), and nasojejunal (NJ) tubes depends on whether your child can tolerate feeding into the stomach or not.



NG-Tubes

NG-tubes enter the body through the nose and run down the esophagus into the stomach.




ND- or NJ-Tubes

ND-tubes are similar to NG-tubes, but they go through the stomach and end in the first portion of the small intestine (duodenum). NJ-tubes extend even further to the second portion of the small intestine (jejunum). Bypassing the stomach can be beneficial for those whose stomachs don’t empty well, who have chronic vomiting, or who inhale or aspirate stomach contents into the lungs.

My friend, Alley, was kind enough to share her NJ Tube story with me. You can read it here: http://www.emilysstomach.com/2014/03/an-nj-tube-story-by-alley-samms.html




All of the different nasal feeding tubes and placements.
Source:https://tinyurl.com/ychryage




Tips for Little Hands and Nasal Tubes

Babies and small children will often try to pull their nasal tubes out. At night, try putting mittens or socks on your child’s hands to keep him/her from pulling the tube out. You can tape the nasal tube (or feeding bag tubing) down the back of the shirt during the day to keep it out of the child’s way. At night, you may want to tape it further down the pajamas. If the pajamas are two-piece, you can run tubing inside the pajama leg to keep children from tangling.






Nasal Tube Considerations

They are non-surgical and temporary.
They are a good way to quickly get infants and children the nutritional benefits of tube feeding.
They can be helpful in determining if longer-term tube feeding will be beneficial.
Nasal tubes need to be taped to the cheek, which can be irritating to some children.
Little hands often succeed in pulling nasal tubes out. Make sure you discuss accidental removal with your doctor and have a replacement plan, because it will happen.
You may see increased nasal congestion, especially in infants.
Nasal tubes can make reflux, gagging, and oral aversions worse.
Nasal tubes can clog easily because they are very narrow. This is unlikely to happen with regular feeding, but may happen with medications that aren’t in liquid form. If your child has any medications that need to be crushed, discuss with your doctors if there is a liquid, compounded, or dissolvable form that can be used.
Some hospitals do not let infants or children go home with nasal tubes. Discuss this with your doctor in advance (if possible).
Nasal tubes are intended for short-term use. They need to be changed every 3 days to 4 weeks, depending on the type of tube. If longer-term tube feeding is needed, it may be time to discuss a G-tube (gastrostomy tube) that is placed directly into the stomach.
Nasal tubes are highly visible since they are taped to the face. They may draw unwanted attention because few people know what they are. They may also be confused with oxygen, since that is the reference point most people have when they see a tube near the nose.



Life at Home with a Nasal Tube

Parents and caregivers can learn how to place, or 'drop,' an NG-tube at home. You will need to be taught by a medical professional, because the correct placement is very important. Learning to replace the tube yourself makes it a lot easier to do routine changes and replace a tube that gets pulled out at home. You will need to check the placement of the nasal tube after you insert it. It is a good idea to confirm placement before the start of each feed and if your child vomits forcefully. You can get more information on NG tube placement, including videos, on our NG Tube Placement and Verification page.

Taping the tube properly to the face can also make a world of difference. Learn how on our Taping Nasal Tubes page.

NJ-tubes, and some ND-tubes, need to be placed by a radiologist with X-ray guidance to ensure correct placement. They cannot be changed at home.



Questions to Ask

Will it be an NG-, ND-, or NJ-tube?
Will we leave the hospital with this tube?
What should I do if the tube is pulled out?
How long will this tube be in place?
How often do we need to replace it?
How do we replace it?
At what point do we need to consider a more permanent tube, such as a G-tube?
Do I need to check placement before feeding or giving medication?
How do I check the placement?





Gastrostomy (G) Tubes

The most common type of feeding tube is the gastrostomy (G) tube. G-tubes are placed through the abdominal wall into the stomach. This sounds scarier than it is. The G-tube surgery can be performed in three ways: surgically through small incisions using a laparoscope, surgically using a larger open incision, or endoscopically using a scope into the stomach to create the stoma from the inside. The endoscopic method has become the method of choice at many hospitals; however, some institutions still place tubes surgically, and children with anatomic abnormalities or who need other procedures may require a surgical placement. For more information on surgical placement, see our page on G-Tube Surgery.

There are a number of types of G-tubes. Any kind of G-tube can be placed initially. Often it is the surgeon or the gastroenterologist who determines the first type of G-tube placed.




PEG and Long Tubes

These are one-piece tubes held in place either by a retention balloon or by a bumper. They are often used as the initial G-tube for the first 8-12 weeks post-surgery. PEG specifically describes a long G-tube placed by endoscopy, and stands for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. Sometimes the term PEG is used to describe all G-tubes. Surgeons may place other styles of long tubes.


Source: https://www.feedingtubeawareness.org/tube-feeding-basics/tubetypes/g-tube/





Source: In the Image





Low Profile Tubes or Buttons


Source: https://www.feedingtubeawareness.org/tube-feeding-basics/tubetypes/g-tube/



These tubes do not have a long tube permanently attached outside the stomach. Instead, they have a tube called an extension set that is attached for feeding or medication administration and then disconnected when not in use. When an extension set is not attached to the button, it lies fairly flat against the body. There are two types: balloon and non-balloon.




Balloon Buttons

Balloon buttons are held in place by a water-filled balloon. Balloon buttons are the most common G-tube for children once the stoma (G-tube site) is fully healed, usually in 2-3 months. The use of balloon buttons as a first G-tube is increasing among medical professionals. Balloon buttons can be replaced at home after caregiver training.




Non-Stop Balloon Buttons

Some surgeons and gastroenterologists prefer the first G-tube to be a non-balloon button. Non-balloon buttons are harder to pull out than balloon buttons. Non-balloon buttons cannot be replaced at home. They are placed in the doctor’s office or at the hospital, sometimes with sedation or a topical pain reliever.




Gastric Tube Considerations

G-tubes can be more comfortable than nasal tubes and are a safer option for longer-term tube feeding.
There are low profile, button-style G-tubes that aren’t as noticeable under clothing.
The balloon button G-tubes can be replaced at home by a trained parent or caregiver.
Balloon buttons and tubes typically need to be replaced every 3 months, while non-balloon buttons need to changed less often, between every 6 months to a year.
G-tubes need to be placed surgically or endoscopically, and there is a recovery period after.
Little hands may also pull out G-tubes.
A common complication of G-tubes is the formation of granulation tissue (which looks like red, overgrown tissue around the tube site) during the healing process. It isn’t dangerous but it can be painful and irritating. It may also bleed easily. For more information, see the Granulation Tissue page (NOTE: The link can be reached if you click on "Granulation Tissue" but I have also included the article below).





Granulation Tissue




Source: https://www.feedingtubeawareness.org/troubleshooting/tube-sites/granulation-tissue/



Granulation tissue is typically red or pink soft tissue that appears bumpy or almost bubbly in nature. It is the body’s attempt to heal the tube site. It can bleed very easily and may grow quite rapidly. However, while granulation tissue may be bothersome, it is not dangerous.

Your doctor can use Silver Nitrate to cauterize (or remove) the tissue, or may prescribe steroid creams, such as Triamcinolone (Kenalog) ointment. There are several different strengths of Triamcinolone cream, so ask for a stronger version if the low strength does not work. Silver Nitrate chemically “burns” off the granulation tissue already there, but does not prevent it from growing back. Make sure to cover the unaffected tissue around the stoma with petroleum jelly or a barrier cream to prevent damaging the healthy skin. It is normal for the granulation tissue to look brown and quite awful after having Silver Nitrate applied.

Another option for treatment is GranuLotion, an over-the-counter product that many parents use to help treat granulation tissue. Home remedies that may help include Tea Tree Oil, Maalox or another antacid, Calmoseptine Ointment, or aloe vera (fresh or gel form).

Stabilizing tubes and extensions can help by reducing friction at the tube site. You can tape them to the stomach or create a tab that can be pinned to a diaper or clothing by folding the tape back onto itself.

Keeping the area dry is extremely important to prevent granulation tissue. At first the site may leak. But within 4-6 weeks, the leakage should diminish. Some families prefer to keep the tube site open to air, some use gauze under the button, and some use cloth tube pads. Using G-tube pads can also help reduce friction and absorb leaks to keep the area dry. Certain types of dressings, such as Mepilex, may also be helpful.

Have your doctor check the sizing of the feeding tube, as an incorrectly sized tube can make granulation tissue worse.



Additional Resources:

Site Care Tips for Feeding Tube Stomas from Complex Child. This has wonderful information in it, It has tips on how to deal with yeast around the button/tube site, how to secure it, clean it, and dress it. This site has a lot of useful information in it, including how to handle a bacterial infection.

Granulation Tissue 101 from Feeding Raya. This blog contains pictures of Raya and how the mother deals with issues like granulation, and contains pictures. It is a wonderful resource for those new to feeding tubes or for seasoned veterans with questions.




Sizing for G-tubes

All G-tubes are sized by the width of the tube, which is measured using the French scale, across the diameter of the tube. G-tube buttons require a second measurement, in centimeters, based on the length of the tube’s stem (the part of the tube that is placed in the stoma or tube site). For example, a 16Fr 1.5cm tube has a French size (diameter) of 16 and a stem length of 1.5cm. The size is listed on MIC-KEY and AMT button G-tubes. G-tubes should have enough room between the tube and the skin to allow one or two coins to slide under. If the tube is pressing tightly against the skin or has much more room, your child may need a different stem size.



For more information about feeding tubes, please visit:

https://www.feedingtubeawareness.org/tube-feeding-basics/tubetypes/



I also wanted to share some personal stories I received from people with different feeding tubes. I asked them a series of questions that I have been asked in my support groups many times, and they were kind enough to answer those questions and share their stories.


Kristin G. writes,




Stewart W. writes,


"I thought I'd let you know my experience with an NG tube.

My specialist and I decided that due to my on going weight loss (my nausea was so bad that all I was getting was a maximum of about 300 calories a day from Ensure Plus), I had to be admitted to the hospital for two weeks in order to get an NG tube.

The NG tube was fitted on that Friday after my admission, but it was not pleasant. I will say that swallowing afterwards did feel sore but nothing compared to an endoscopy. I was told by the doctor that some people do not tolerate them beforehand, and unfortunately I am one of those people.

Since being diagnosed with Gastroparesis, I have always noticed what feels like a lump in my throat. If I try to touch it, it makes my nausea worse. Furthermore, I am also being treated for polyps in my sinuses and these issues made the tube unbearable. I suffered from the worst headache I have ever had for three days straight, along with really bad nausea. I'm lucky that I'm not actually sick very much.

My stomach also had trouble with the feed itself and the pump was only set at 25ml per hour. However, even this caused stomach pain, burping, and diarrhea all night (had a fight with the nurses in the morning for not calling them. I was in a private room so had my own loo and just got on with it. I'm used to this anyway).


I saw the nutritionist on the second day and she had me sipping Ensure Plus, one 250ml every two hours, but it took an hour and a half to finish it.


On the third day, I eventually emailed my specialist and told him what was happening, all of the problems I was having with the tube. He said there was no point persevering further and to just get it removed. I'm in the UK but am lucky enough to have private health care, so you get answers to emails even at eight pm on a Sunday night. Otherwise, the nurses wouldn't be able to do anything without the doctor's approval, in which case I would have done it myself.

I honestly think I could have gotten used to the throat part if it wasn't for the blinding headache. I couldn't even lift my head off the pillow.

It even affected my state of mind and I felt really down. I was actually quite tearful. I even texted my wife and kids and told them I didn't want any visitors at first, but as soon as the tube came out, I was fine. It was weird.

Only 10 minutes after the removal my headache was almost completely gone I'm assuming it was irritating my sinuses and the nausea calmed back down to it's usual which seemed nothing in comparison.

We agreed that if I could get 1800 calories a day minimum, then I could go home within the week. I need 2400 but 1800 should stop me loosing weight, it's pretty much a 12 hour a day job as I need to take it so slowly.

My GI wants to see me in a week to discuss what we are going to do going forward as all I am having is Ensure plus , scandishake and coffee of course.

He has talked about a PEJ tube to bypass my stomach but we will see what happens.

Since coming home I have managed to keep my calorie intake up even just making my latte with fortified milk (unflavored scandishake)
650 calories per cup (go me 😁 ).

Unfortunately today the nausea is real bad so not much going in.

I don't want anybody to take my negative experience as the only outcome as the guy in the room next to me had no issues outside of slight discomfort for a day or two, which he said was helped by letting strepsils throat sweets dissolve in his mouth."

The people below were brave enough to share their pictures for Tubie Awareness Month. They gave me permission to post their pictures and I want to commend them for it. They are true warriors, really, anyone with a chronic illness is."


















Sunday, January 27, 2019

Dehydration is a Medical Emergency

I finally got home yesterday after being hospitalized for a couple of days. I began to get really ill last week and I could not stop vomiting. Finally, early Tuesday evening, the room started going black and I was going to pass out right away if I did not sit down. The room was spinning, even while I was sitting down. I thought maybe I was hypoglycemic because I experience the same symptoms when my blood sugar gets low and I had been unable to keep down anything for five days, including water. I went downstairs to my kitchen to eat a banana (at my husband's suggestion to coat my stomach). I grabbed the banana and then the room started going black again. I ran to try to make it to the kitchen chair and my knees gave out before I could reach it. I fell on my knees and landed on the stone kitchen floor with my jaw. To top it all off, I landed on the banana. It was like something out of a Monty Python movie. I passed out for a bit but when I came to, I managed to drag myself to my laptop (my phone did not charge because of a faulty cable - go figure) and called my husband. He took me to the hospital, mostly to make sure I did not fracture anything since I fell hard.




When we got there, my husband got me a wheelchair because every time I stood up, my vision started going black. Then, I went back to the triage nurse who took my blood pressure. She could not believe what she was seeing and took it twice more. My blood pressure was 74/41 (normal blood pressure is 120/80). They called me back right away and put me into a room. The lab tech came in and took seven vials of blood from my foot because I had no more veins. I kept passing in and out of consciousness. I came to as the doctor was talking to my husband. She told me that I was in acute renal failure (my kidneys were failing), my blood pressure was dangerously low, and that my potassium was dangerously low, so they were going to admit me. I was so scared. Usually when I go to the Emergency Room, they treat me like a drug addict. They may give me one bag of fluids, if I'm lucky, and then send me home. However, none of the Emergency Room doctors or staff treated me that way in the slightest.





Source: On Image





I was admitted onto the Internal Medicine floor and given medication through an IV to try and get the nausea and vomiting under control, and to get my kidneys to kick back in. Additionally, I received four IV bags of potassium and my potassium was STILL low! So, they just kept giving me more. I was in the hospital for three days. I finally got to go home Friday night and I'm so glad because I really wanted some much needed sleep and rest. It is so hard to rest in a hospital with people coming in to check your vitals, draw blood, give medications, and/or bring food in. I talk more about this in my video I recorded below, but it honestly just felt like a normal Gastroparesis Attack to me, and I just thought I was hypoglycemic. That wasn't the case at all, and it was a serious emergency. I hate to think of what might have happened if I had not gone. I could have died and I am still processing that. I talk about that more below.




Dehydration is VERY serious.






Source: Google Image







My personal Story From This Week



I do not know if a lot of places have these yet, but Atlanta has Hydration Stations. According to their website,

"Walk into Atlanta's Hydration Station on a Sunday morning and you'll find a dozen people in dimly lit rooms lying on recliner chairs with needles stuck in their arms.

Most of them are hungover from heavy drinking the night before. The needles are pumping sterile saltwater and a cocktail of vitamins and anti-nausea drugs into their veins.

The treatment costs upwards of $29 and it has become so popular in Atlanta that Hydration Station is opening a second location down the road just nine months after launching the first, according to CEO Keith McDermott.

McDermott describes the concept as a cross between a spa and a doctor's office. It attracts a mix of athletes and hungover partiers, depending on the time of week. On the weekends, about 75% of Hydration Station's clientele is hungover, McDermott said.

He wants the business to eventually cater more toward athletes, but he's not discouraging the traffic from partiers. Hydration Station is sponsoring a pub crawl this weekend and a New Year's Eve ball on Dec. 31.

Customers rave about the services on Yelp and Facebook and a number of them have been posting photos of themselves on social media hooked up to the IVs.

'Love this place!' someone wrote in a Yelp review on Oct. 21. 'Did a little bit too much drinking the night before and decided to come here... After I left here I felt instantly better — didn't even need so much as a nap throughout the day. I got the water IV and [vitamin] B12.'

Another reviewer wrote: 'After a long party weekend, Hydration Station hit the spot. I felt horrible until I got my IV. It was quick and easy.'

Luke Davis, an athlete and owner of the gym CrossFit Tucker in Tucker, Ga., told Business Insider that he has visited Hydration Station about 10 times since it opened 'and would be there a lot more if I didn't have such a crazy schedule.'

'It really helps with recovery after a really strenuous workout,' he said. 'We can recover so much faster and can train again the next day.'

Davis said he usually gets the $99 'Niagra Falls' package for his training purposes, even though it's advertised for people in 'deathbed territory' on the Hydration Station's website.

The package includes up to two liters of hydration (or two IV bags), a cocktail of Zofran (anti-nausea), Toradol (anti-inflammatory) and Pepcid (anti-heartburn), 30 minutes of oxygen, vitamin B12, and oral antioxidant and multi-vitamins to go.

Davis said he omits the anti-nausea medicine from his treatment because that's for people who are ill or have hangovers.

Dr. Robert Shesser, chairman of George Washington University's Department of Emergency Medicine, told Business Insider that the 'Niagra' is a perfectly safe concoction of drugs for someone with symptoms of a hangover or anyone suffering from dehydration after an athletic event.

'All of these medication are used quite frequently and their safety profile is excellent,' Shesser said. Hydrating someone who is suffering from over-intoxication is also a routine procedure, even though the science behind it 'isn't necessarily the strongest,' he said.

'The only scientific basis [for the treatment] is that alcohol is a diuretic so people who drink will have an increase in urinary output and theoretically become dehydrated,' he explained. 'But unless you are drinking shots of scotch in the middle of the desert,' you probably won't lose enough water to need an IV, he said.

'But if it makes people feel better, then great,' he added.

The most popular package at Hydration Station is the $29 'Baptism,' which includes one IV bag and 15 minutes of oxygen, according to McDermott. One IV bag is equivalent to drinking more than two gallons of water, he said.

The treatments, which typically last up to 45 minutes, are administered by paramedics who work for the Hydration Station part-time. The company employs about eight to 10 paramedics on a rotating basis at the Buckhead location.

To pass the time, customers have a choice of playing with Hydration Station's assortment of tablets or watching TV.






'People have a fear of needles and apprehension when coming in, especially if they haven't done it before, so we try and make them as relaxed as possible,' McDermott said.



It Started With A Wedding Hangover

Before launching Hydration Station, McDermott was the vice president of marketing and business development for Biomass Gas & Electric (BG&E). He came up with the idea for the Hydration Station several years ago after attending a wedding where many of the guests, including himself, had overindulged on the night of the rehearsal dinner.

'We were playing golf the next day and the groom told me that they had a nurse who was giving IVs to people to help them get over their hangovers,' McDermott said. 'It felt super' and guests were raving about it, he said.

Coincidentally, McDermott had experienced his first IV treatment 10 days earlier when he felt ill after several weeks of traveling for work.

After the wedding-day IV, it dawned on McDermott that the service could work as a business. A Google search told him that there's a similar service in Las Vegas that operates out of a bus. There's also one in Chicago called IVMe Hydration Clinic.

But there wasn't anything like it in Atlanta, aside from hospitals.

McDermott hired Dr. Thomas Roepke, a board-certified physician and friend of his, as medical director and opened the Hydration Station in Atlanta's Buckhead neighborhood in March. Roepke developed the company's range of treatments based on his own research and nearly 20 years of treating patients, according to the company website.

When designing the office, McDermott said he assumed people would prefer private rooms, but 'it has become the exact opposite.'


'People come in, they want to share stories about the last marathon they were in, or if they are here for a little over-indulgence, they like to talk about their night out,' he said.

Some people even make a date out of it, he added.

'They meet, go out on dates and stuff on Saturdays and then they come in Sunday morning,' he said. 'It's become a social thing.'

He describes the new office, which is being built five miles down the road in Atlanta's Brookhaven neighborhood, as 'sleek and spa-like.'

'It's going to be a cross between the W Hotel and an Apple store,' McDermott said."







Source: Flickr



According to Life Signs Blog,

"How Much Water Do You Need to Drink Every Day?

Did you know that you’re mostly made of water? If you’re an adult female, you’re about 55% water. Men are about 60% because they typically have more lean tissue (which contains more water) and women have more fatty tissue (which contains less water). Younger people have more (babies are born at about 78%) and older folks have less (about 50%).

Approximate percentages of water in various body parts:

Blood 92%
Lungs 83%
Muscles and kidneys 79%
Heart and brain 73%
Skin 64%
Bones 31%

Yes, even your bones are nearly one-third H2O. And yet two-thirds of us — nearly 70% — aren’t drinking enough water to keep our bodies functioning properly. It doesn’t take much to throw off the balance and become dehydrated. Don’t let something as simple as drinking enough water send you to the ER — it’s really not a story you’ll look forward to telling around the water cooler.





Source: On Image and Google Images





When does dehydration occur?

At just 1% dehydration, or when you’ve lost 1% of your body’s water, mental performance and physical coordination start to become impaired — and you’re not even thirsty yet


At 2-3% dehydration, you’ll feel thirsty and possibly some of these other symptoms:

Fatigue, lethargy, fuzzy thinking
Irritability
Dizziness
Headache
Dry mouth and skin
Muscle cramps
Rapid pulse (100 beats/minute or higher)
Fever and chills




Source: Google Images





Bryan Thibodeau, MD, ER medical director at Medical City Las Colinas, cautions parents to look for these signs of dehydration in infants and babies:

Sunken fontanelle (soft spot on the head)
Limp/inactive
Dry lips/tongue/mouth
Crying without tears
Pale or mottled skin


Dehydration can be very dangerous, especially for infants, children and older people. If someone you know shows signs of dehydration, seek immediate emergency medical treatment.




Source:https://articles.mercola.com/dehydration-symptoms.aspx




Why Our Bodies Need Water

Besides being the primary building block for all cells, water is vital to the health of every system in our bodies.

Among other important functions, water:

Regulates body temperature
Transports nutrients and waste materials
Aids digestion
Cushions the brain and spinal cord
Keeps eyes and mouths moist
Lubricates joints
Can prevent heartburn, constipation and kidney stones
Manages heartbeat, blood pressure and electrolyte (sodium) balance


Did you know water can also help prevent heart attacks? A study at Loma Linda University found that dehydration thickens the blood, making it harder for the heart to pump and increasing the risk of blood clots. Study participants who drank just 40 ounces of water a day cut their risk for heart attacks by 54% for men and 41% for women.








How Much Water is Enough?

The old advice to drink at least eight 8-ounce glasses of water a day is just that — a good starting point but outdated because it was never really accurate.


According to the Cleveland Clinic, there isn’t a one-size-fits-all recommendation for daily water intake. How much you need depends on:

How much you weigh (a larger person needs more water)
Your activity level
Your metabolism
Your geographic location (people who live in hot, dry climates need more water)
The weather
Your diet (how much water are you getting from the foods you eat?)
Your health (fever, vomiting, diarrhea and some medications and conditions can increase your water needs)


The Mayo Clinic suggests that if you drink enough water so that you’re rarely thirsty and your urine is colorless or light yellow, you’re probably doing fine. If you’re always thirsty and your urine is dark yellow with a strong odor, you need to get chugging. If you just don’t like water, try getting it in soups, smoothies and high-water content fruits and vegetables."




Source: Google Images






According to Dr. Mercola,

"Dehydration happens when you’ve lost too much water in your body without replacing it, which prevents your body to perform its normal functions

Infants and children are especially prone to dehydration since their bodies are composed of 70 percent and 65 percent water, respectively

Beverage companies claim that sports drink will help replenish the electrolytes in your body during exercise or outdoor activities, but the truth is the ingredients of your favorite sports drinks will not hydrate and benefit you, and may even be detrimental to your health

When you nourish your body with structured water, you are restoring your body to a balanced and whole state
By Dr. Mercola

Dehydration is not a simple health issue. Anyone can run out of liquids in their body due to various reasons, so it is important that you always hydrate yourself with water. Read on to learn more about symptoms of dehydration and how to prevent it.

What Is Dehydration?
Water makes up at least two-thirds of the human body. It plays a large part in your normal functions, such as lubricating your joints and eyes, keeping your skin healthy by eliminating toxins, and facilitating proper digestion. Once the water in your body is reduced, it needs to be replaced because an imbalance between the salts and sugar in your body can affect the way you will perform.1

If your body has lost one to two percent of its entire water content, you will feel thirsty, a sign that you need to replenish the lost liquids.

Dehydration happens when you've lost too much water in your body without replacing it, preventing your body to perform its normal functions. Mild dehydration can easily be treated but if it reaches extreme levels, it can be life-threatening and will require immediate medical attention.





Signs and Symptoms of Dehydration

Aside from the common symptoms like intense thirst or sweating too much, here are some of the mild and severe symptoms of dehydration:2

Mild to Moderate Dehydration
Severe Dehydration
Dry, sticky mouth Extreme thirst
Sleepiness or tiredness Irritability and confusion
Dry skin Sunken eyes
Headache Dry skin that doesn't bounce back when you pinch it
Constipation Low blood pressure
Dizziness or lightheadedness Rapid heartbeat
Few or no tears when crying Rapid breathing
Minimal urine No tears when crying
Dry, cool skin3 Fever
Muscle cramps Little or no urination, and any urine color that is darker than usual




Source: On Images and Google Images




In serious cases, delirium or unconsciousness.

Infants are more vulnerable to dehydration, that's why immediate attention must be given to them especially if you see these symptoms:

Sunken soft spot (fontanelle) on their head
Few or no tears when they cry
Dry mouth
Few wet diapers
Drowsiness
Fast breathing
Chronic dehydration may affect your organs and lead to kidney stones, cholesterol problems, constipation, and liver, joint, and muscle damage.

Whether it is mild, moderate, or severe dehydration, the lost liquids in your body must be immediately replaced. If you start to develop severe diarrhea with or without vomiting, fever, moderate diarrhea for 24 hours, bloody stool, or you can't drink any liquids, you must get professional treatment as soon as possible.




Source: On Image




What Causes Dehydration?

There are various reasons for dehydration like intense physical activity, which makes you lose so much water – fat and calories are counted as well – so proper hydration is necessary. Other causes of dehydration include:


Diarrhea. It prevents your intestinal tract from absorbing water from the foods that you eat, which makes it the most common cause of dehydration.
Vomiting. Common causes include foodborne illnesses, nausea, and alcohol poisoning.
Sweating. Vigorous sweating may happen due to various reasons like fever and engaging in intense physical activity. Profuse sweating can also occur when you are working in a hot condition.5
Diabetes. Aside from having high blood sugar levels, some medications for diabetes like diuretics may cause diabetics to frequently urinate.
Frequent urination. It can be cause by alcohol and certain drugs like antihistamines, blood pressure medications, and antipsychotics.





Source: HERE





Who Is at Risk of Dehydration?

While everyone is prone to dehydration, there are people who are at a high risk for it like those who engage in mountain climbing. It is especially hard for hikers to stay hydrated because the pressure in high altitude places makes them lose more sweat and breathe harder. The increased gas exchange causes your body to lose more water vapor.6

Athletes, particularly those who are involved in marathons, triathlons, and cycling tournaments, are also predisposed to dehydration. The longer they exercise, the more they lose water in their bodies.

One study even revealed that dehydration can affect basketball players' performance. The study focused on 17 males ranging from 17-28 years old, and determined their performance based on different dehydration levels of up to 4 percent. The result showed that when there's an increase in dehydration, skill performance decreases.

Infants and children are especially prone to dehydration since their bodies are composed of 70 percent and 65 percent water, respectively. Since their bodies are more vulnerable to water depletion, their need for water is greater than adults.

Elderly people are also at risk for dehydration since the thirst mechanism weakens as a person grows older. According to BBC News,8 research revealed that one in five seniors is not getting enough water every day, as aging causes people to lose their sense of thirst mainly because of minimal social contact or forgetfulness. Those with dementia were found to have a six-fold increased risk for dehydration.

Ill-stricken people, like those who are inflicted with kidney disease, diabetes, cystic fibrosis, and adrenal gland disorders, are also more prone to dehydration. Alcoholics may also be susceptible to this condition.





Source: HERE






How to Prevent Dehydration

Since dehydration can be a life-threatening condition, it is important that you replenish your body with water immediately after you've lost so much. Water plays such an immense role in your bodily functions, making it an essential part of your everyday life.

Always bring a bottle of water with you during exercise or any physical activity, especially when the temperature's too hot. One good rule of thumb to prevent dehydration is to drink as much water until your urine turns light yellow. Dark urine means that your kidney is retaining liquids in order for your body to perform its normal functions.

It is especially important to pay attention to people who are sick with fever, vomiting, or diarrhea, so they may not become dehydrated. They should be given lots of water to replace the liquids that they've lost.




Source: HERE





Drinking Sports Drinks Will Not Keep You Hydrated

Sports drink is one of the highly commercialized beverages today – from its TV advertisements to its popular athlete endorsers – as mainstream media makes it look like drinking it will keep you healthy and well-hydrated. Beverage companies advertise that sports drink will help replenish the electrolytes in your body during exercise or outdoor activities, but the truth is the ingredients of your favorite sports drinks will not hydrate and benefit you, and may even be detrimental to your health.

A typical sports drink contains high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and artificial sweeteners. It has two-thirds of the sugar content of soda, and is 30 times more erosive to your teeth than water. High-fructose corn syrup could cause negative health impacts like preventing the natural production of your body's human growth hormone (HGH). It also contributes to almost all chronic diseases like diabetes, cancer, and heart disease.





Source: HERE





Aside from sports drinks, there are also other sweetened beverages that you don't benefit much from, like sodas. These are also equally unhealthy for your health, as just a 20-ounce bottle of cola gives you 16 teaspoons of sugar through high-fructose corn syrup. Diet soda makes no difference either because a study revealed that diet soda drinkers have a 70 percent increase in waist size than those non-diet soda drinkers in a 10-year period.9

Commercial fruit juices are another sweetened drink that you must avoid because they do not have any hydrating properties and are actually loaded with sugar. For example, Minute Maid's 15.2 ounce bottle actually contains 49 grams of sugar.

What's more, most processed fruit juices are made with little resemblance of what an actual fresh fruit juice would be. Commercial fruit juices are pasteurized and their oxygen is removed to preserve them for a long time, making the juices less nutrient-dense. Store-bought fruit juices with an expiration date of 60 days or more is a sign that it is heavily processed, so I encourage you to boycott these kinds of beverages.




Source:HERE






Choose to Drink Living Water

I advise you to avoid drinking tap water at all costs as it contains fluoride, heavy metals, and disinfection byproducts that may have ill effects on your health. Install a water filter in your home to ensure that these harmful contaminants are strained.

If you want the best water for you and your family, I suggest drinking structured or "living" water, such as deep spring water. According to Dr. Gerald Pollack, one of the world's leading research scientists about the physics of water, structured water or EZ "exclusion zone" water is the same type of water found in your cells. It has a negative charge, and works just like a battery by holding and delivering energy.

Since distilled water is too acidic and alkaline water is too alkaline, only structured water contains the ideal PH range of 6.5 to 7.5. That's why I truly want you to nourish your body with structured water, as it can restore your body to a balanced and whole state.

I personally drink vortexed water since I became a fan of Viktor Schauberger, who did so much work about vortexing hundred years ago. By creating a vortex in your glass of water, you are putting much energy in it and increasing EZ as well.

Ideal EZ water can be found in glacial melt but since it is practically inaccessible for almost everyone, natural deep spring water is a good source. Just bring glass jugs and avoid plastic bottles since they contain bisphenol A, bisphenol B, and phthalates, which are harmful to your health.





Source: HERE





Other Natural Thirst-Quenchers for Preventing Dehydration

If you want to drink something flavorful than water, you can opt for raw, organic green juice made from fresh vegetables. However, I recommend refraining from drinking juice with too many fruits as it will have high amounts of sugar and calories. Go for a green juice recipe that combines one or two fruits and larger amounts of greens like spinach, celery, or kale. That way, you can minimize your sugar intake and still get all the nutrients from the fruits and vegetables in their purest forms.

I advise keeping your fructose consumption below 25 grams per day. If you have type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, or heart disease, it is wise if you will minimize your total fructose to 15 grams daily.

Coconut water also serves as a great replacement for commercially sold sports drinks. It provides optimal health benefits due to its anti-inflammatory, amino acids, and antioxidants. A word of caution: coconut water also contains sugar, so you should drink it in moderation. Drink it preferably after a cardio workout, when you need to replace minerals and fluids.

The Key to Avoiding Dehydration: Listen to Your Body
No one can determine if you have dehydration better than yourself. If you feel that you are already thirsty or sweating profusely, you have to replenish your body with water immediately. Do not wait for severe symptoms to show before you take action, since this can be life threatening.

Everyone is practically at risk for dehydration, even without any physical activity, so it is important to always keep a bottle of filtered water to always keep you hydrated. Remember that a healthy person urinates seven to eight times each day, so if you're not urinating frequently it means that you're not drinking enough water.

Remember to always listen to your body. Once you feel that urge to drink, opt for structured or filtered water rather than artificially sweetened beverages, which can have dire effects on your health. Nothing feels more refreshing than cold water to replace the liquids that you've lost."




Source: HERE




According to The Stomach Flu Edition, here is a recipe on how to make homemade Pedialyte and foods that have hydration:


Source: HERE


Source:HERE




Until I was doing research on this, I had no idea that dehydration could cause back pain,





According to Science Alert,

"Here's What Happens to Your Body When You're Dehydrated
TOBY MüNDEL, THE CONVERSATION
5 FEB 2016

This article was written by Toby Mündel from Massey University, and was originally published by The Conversation.

Water is essential for human life. It accounts for for 50-70 percent of our body weight and is crucial for most bodily functions. Any deficit in normal body water – through dehydration, sickness, exercise or heat stress – can make us feel rotten. First we feel thirsty and fatigued, and may develop a mild headache. This eventually gives way to grumpiness, and mental and physical decline.

We continually lose water via our breath, urine, faeces and skin. Most healthy people regulate their body’s water level remarkably well via eating and drinking, and are guided by appetite and thirst. But this is more difficult for infants, the sick, the elderly, athletes, and those with strenuous physical occupations, especially in the heat.
What happens when you dehydrate?

By the time you feel thirsty your body is already dehydrated; our thirst mechanism lags behind our actual level of hydration.

Research shows that as little as 1 percent dehydration negatively affects your mood, attention, memory and motor coordination. Data in humans is lacking and contradictory, but it appears that brain tissue fluid decreases with dehydration, thus reducing brain volume and temporarily affecting cell function.

As you 'lose' body water without replacing it, your blood becomes more concentrated and, at a point, this triggers your kidneys to retain water. The result: you urinate less.

The thicker and more concentrated your blood becomes, the harder it is for your cardiovascular system to compensate by increasing heart rate to maintain blood pressure. When your dehydrated body is 'pushed' – such as when exercising or faced with heat stress – the risk of exhaustion or collapse increases. This can cause you to faint, for instance, when you stand up too quickly.

Less water also hampers the body’s attempts at regulating temperature, which can cause hyperthermia (a body temperature greatly above normal). At a cellular level, 'shrinkage' occurs as water is effectively borrowed to maintain other stores, such as the blood. The brain senses this and triggers an increased sensation of thirst.




How much should I drink?

Normal water needs range drastically due to a number of factors, such as body composition, metabolism, diet, climate and clothing.

Surprisingly, the first official recommendation about water intake was made as recently as 2004. According to the Institute of Medicine, the adequate water intake for adult men and women is 3.7 and 2.7 litres per day, respectively.

Around 80 percent of total daily water should be obtained from any beverage (including water, caffeinated drinks and alcohol!) and the remaining 20 percent from food.

But of course, this is just a rough guide. Here’s how to monitor your own hydration:

Track your body weight and stay within 1 percent of your normal baseline. You can work out your baseline by averaging your weight (just out of bed, before breakfast) on three consecutive mornings.

Monitor your urine. You should be urinating regularly (more than three to four times per day) and it should be a pale straw or light yellow colour without strong odour. If less frequent, darker colour or too pungent, then drink more fluids.

Be conscious about drinking enough fluids. Your fluid consumption should prevent the perception of thirst.

Toby Mündel, Senior Lecturer, School of Sport and Exercise, Massey University."




Source:HERE





According to The Encyclopedia Britannica,

"The symptoms of dehydration depend in part on the cause and in part on whether there is associated salt deprivation as well. When loss of water is disproportionately greater than loss of electrolytes (salt), the osmotic pressure of the extracellular fluids becomes higher than in the cells. Since water passes from a region of lower to a region of higher osmotic pressure, water flows out of the cells into the extracellular fluid, tending to lower its osmotic pressure and increase its volume toward normal. As a result of the flow of water out of the cells, they become dehydrated. This results in the thirst that always accompanies “pure” water depletion.

In those diseases in which there is loss of salt in excess of water loss, the decreased concentration of sodium in the extracellular fluid and in the blood serum results in decreased osmotic pressure, and water therefore enters the cells to equalize the osmotic pressure. Thus there is extracellular dehydration and intercellular hydration—and no thirst.

Water deprivation produces distinctive symptoms in humans. Weight loss, amounting to two to three pounds per day, occurs. Thirst is the most prominent symptom, with the dryness of mouth, decreased production of saliva, and impaired swallowing that accompany it. It is probable that thirst is the result of this subsequent intracellular dehydration and increased intracellular osmotic pressure. Experimentally, thirst can be produced when the cells have lost about 1 percent of their intracellular water.

As dehydration progresses, the tissues tend to shrink, the skin becomes dry and wrinkled, and the eyes become sunken and the eyeballs soft. Fever develops, possibly from mild to marked, as dehydration progresses. Dehydration itself probably affects the temperature regulatory centres in the brain. As dehydration and salt loss progress, however, the plasma volume and heart output decrease, with a consequent decrease in blood supply to the skin. Sweating decreases and may stop completely, and the main avenue for heat loss is closed. The body temperature may then rise precipitously.

There are marked changes in the volume of the extracellular and intracellular fluids, but the blood plasma volume changes the last and the least. The plasma volume is maintained more or less constant at the expense of the tissue fluids. If, however, the plasma volume does fall, the output of the heart also falls, and the pulse rate climbs, all of which indicates a dangerous physical state.

The renal (kidney) changes that occur in humans during prolonged water depletion similarly tend to maintain a normal balance. If water deprivation continues and the plasma volume falls, however, the output of urine will be drastically reduced. As long as urine output of more than 30 millilitres (1 ounce) per hour is maintained, the kidney can excrete nitrogenous and nonnitrogenous solids with maximum efficiency. Once the urine flow is decreased below this level, the kidney is unable to function efficiently, the substances are retained in the body, and their concentration in the blood rises.

The final result of prolonged dehydration is now apparent. The normal distribution of salt and water in the body is destroyed, the plasma volume decreases, and the blood viscosity increases. As a result of these changes renal function is impaired, the urinary output falls, and waste products accumulate. Far more life-threatening, however, is decreased loss of moisture from the skin, with the subsequent rise in temperature, and the fall in cardiac output with the attendant irreversible shock.

Once renal failure occurs, about 8 percent of the total body water has been lost (4 litres [about 4.25 quarts]). When 5 to 10 litres (about 5.25 to 10.5 quarts) of body water have been lost, a person is acutely and severely ill, with contracted plasma volume, increased concentration and viscosity of the blood, renal failure and excessive urea in the blood, and falling blood pressure. In a previously healthy adult, death follows the loss of 12 to 15 litres (about 12.5 to 15.8 quarts) of body water. In the very young, the very old, or the debilitated, death occurs at a lower level of dehydration."





Sources: On Images




For any doctors and/or medical health professionals, I have a business card: